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Adami H-Q, Bergsstrom R, Mohner M, Zatonski W, Storm H, Ekbom A, et al. Testicular cancer in nine Northern European countries. Int J Cancer 1994;59:33-8

Ao, A., Kontogianni, E.H., Taylor, D. and Handyside, A.H. (1995) Embryonic gene expression in the human preimplantation embryo. Development and Function of the Reproducted Organs. Ch. 3, pp 68-95.

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British Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority . Recent deliberations on the case of human fetal oocytes and on pregnancies in post-menopausal women by the British Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. Hum-Reprod. 1995 Jan; 10(1): 239-44

Bromwich P, Cohen J, Steart I, Walker A. Decline in sperm counts: an artefact of changed reference range of "normal"? BMJ 1994;309:19-22

Bujan L, Mansart A, Ponteonnier F, Mieusset R. Time series analysis of sperm concentration in fertile men in Toulouse, France, between 1977 and 1992. BMJ 1996;312:471-2

Butler, D.. Spermatid injection fertilizes ethics debate [news]. Nature 377: 277 (1995)

Cambell, K.S., Mc Whir, J., Ritsie, W. & Wilmut, I. (1996). Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. Nature 380; 64-66.

Carlsen E, Giwercman A, Keiding N, Skakkebaek NE. Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during past 50 years. BMJ 1992; 305:609-13.

Carlsen E, Giwercman A, Skakkebaek NE, Keiding N. Decreasing quality of semen. BMJ 1993; 306:461

Colborn T, vom Saal FS, Soto AM. Developmental effects of endocrine- disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environ Health Perspect 1993;101:378-84

Coulam-CB; Opsahl-MS; Sherins-RJ; Thorsell-LP; Dorfmann-A; Krysa-L; Fugger-E; Schulman-JD. Comparisons of pregnancy loss patterns after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and other assisted reproductive technologies. Fertil-Steril. 1996 Jun; 65(6): 1157-62

Daniels R; Kinis T; Serhal P; Monk. Expression of the myotonin protein kinase gene in preimplantation human embryos Hum Mol Genet, 4: 3, 1995 Mar, 389-93

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Griffin, D.K., Handyside, A.H., Harper, J.Wilton, L., Atkison, G., Soussis, J., Wells, D., Kontogianni, E.H., Tarin, J., Geber, S., Ao, A., Winston, R.M.L and Delhanty, J.D.A. (1994). Results of a clinical trial involving preimplantation diagnosis of sex by dual fluorescent in situ hybridization. J. Ass. Repr. Genet., Vol. 11, No 3, pp132-143.

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Handyside, A.H., Kontogianni, E.H. (1991). DNA analysis of gametes and embryos. Workshop No II. In "Proceedings of the First Symposium on Preimplantation Genetics", pp 142-145. Plenum, New York.

Harper, J. C., Coonen, E., Handyside, A. H., Winston, R. M. L., Hopman, A. H. N., and Delhanty, J. D. A. 1995. Mosaicism of autosomes and sex chromosomes in morphologically normal, monospermic preimplantation human embryos. Prenat. Diagn. 15:41-49.

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Hinton BT, Palladino MA, Rudolph D, Labus JC. The epididymis as protector of maturing spermatozoa. Reproduction, Fertility, & Development (1995)(1995)7:731-745.

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Irvine S, Cawood E, Richardson D, MacDonald E, Aitken J. Evidence of deteriorating semen quality in the United Kingdom: birth cohort study in 577 men in Scotland over 11 years. BMJ 1996;312:467-70

Johnson, L. A., Schulman, J. D. 1994. The safety of sperm selection by flow cytometry. Hum. Reprod. 9:758-759.

Johnson, L. A., Welch, G. R., Keyvanfar, K., Dorfmann, A., Fugger, E. F., Schulman, J. D. 1993. Gender preselection in humans? Flow cytometric separation of X and Y spermatozoa for the prevention of X-linked diseases. Hum. Reprod. 8:1733-1739.

Keiding N, Giwercman A, Carlsen E, Skakkebaek NE. Failling sperm quality. BMJ 1994; 309:131

Kelce WR, Stone CR, Laws SC, Cray LE, Kemppainen JA, Wilson EM. Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Nature 1995;375:581-5

Kimura Y. & R. Yanagimachi. Mouse oocytes injected with testicular spermatozoa or round spermatids can develop into normal offspring. Development 121: 2397-2405 (1995)

Kontogianni, E.H., Griffin, D.K. and Handyside, A.H. (1996). Identifying the sex of human preimplantation embryos in X-linked disease; amplification efficiency of a Y-specific alphoid repeat from single blastomeres with two lysis protocols. Accepted by J. Ass. Repr. Genet.

Kontogianni, E.H., Hardy, K. and Handyside, A.H. (1991). Co-amplification of X- and Y-specific sequences for sexing human preimplantation embryos. In "Proceedings of the First Symposium on Preimplantation Genetics", pp 139-142. Plenum, New York.

Levinson, G., Keyvanfar, K., Wu, J. C. et al. 1995. DNA-based X-enriched sperm separation as an adjunct to preimplantation genetic testing for the prevention of X-linked disease. Molecular Human Reproduction 10:979-982.

Mansour, R. T., M. A. Aboulghar, G. I. Serour, Y. M. Amin & A. M. Ramzi. The effect of sperm parameters on the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril 64: 982-986 (1995)

Martin, R. (1996). The risk of chromosomal abnormalities following ICSI. Hum. Reprod. 11: 924-925.

Ministry of Environment and Energy, Denmark. Male reproductive health and environmental chemicals with estrogenic effects. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency, 1995. (Miljoprojekt No 290)

Monk, M., Zuccoti, M., Thornhill, A., Holding, C., Kontogianni, E.H. and Daniels, R. (1996). Single cell analysis of chromosomes and genes in development. Accepted by Europ. Embr. Transf.

Mullis, K., Faloona, F., Scharf, S., Saiki, R., Horn, G., Erlich, H. 1986. Specific enzymatic amplification of DNA in vitro: the polymerase chain reaction. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 51 Pt 1:263-273.

Munne, S., Grifo, J., Cohen, J., Weier, H. U. 1994. Chromosome abnormalities in human arrested preimplantation embryos: a multiple-probe FISH study. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 55:150-159.

Munne, S., Lee, A., Rosenwaks, Z., Grifo, J., Cohen, J. 1993. Diagnosis of major chromosome aneuploidies in human preimplantation embryos. Hum. Reprod. 8:2185-2191.

Munne, S., Tang, Y. X., Grifo, J., Rosenwaks, Z., Cohen, J. 1994. Sex determination of human embryos using the polymerase chain reaction and confirmation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fertil. Steril. 61:111-117.

Murayama-S; Yamano-S; Kobayashi-T; Ishikawa-H; Kunikata-K; Aono-T. Successful freezing of unfertilized mouse oocytes and effect of cocultures in oviducts on development of in vitro fertilized embryos after thawing. J-Assist-Reprod-Genet. 1994 Mar; 11(3): 156-61

Ogura, A. and Yanagimachi, R. (1993) Round spermatid nuclei injected into hamster oocytes form pronuclei and participate in syngamy. Biol. Reprod., 48, 219-225.

Ogura, A., Matsuda, J. and Yanagimachi, R. (1994) Birth of normal young after electrofusion of mouse oocytes with round spermatids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 91, 7460-7462.

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Palermo, G., Joris, H., Devroey, P., Van Steirteghem, A. C. 1992. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte. Lancet 340:17-18.

Patrizio P, Ord T, Balmaceda JP, Asch RH . Use of epididymal sperm for assisted reproduction in men with acquired, irreparable obstructive azoospermia.

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Sharpe RM. Another DDT connection. Nature 1995;375:538-9

Sherins, R. J., Thorsell, L. P., Dorfmann, A., Dennison-Lagos, L., Calvo, L. P., Krysa, L., Coulam, C. B., Schulman, J. D. 1995. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection facilitates fertilization even in the most severe forms of male infertility: pregnancy outcome correlates with maternal age and number of eggs available. Fertil Steril 64:369-375.

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Van Steirteghem, A. C., Nagy, Z., Joris, H., Liu, J., Staessen, C., Smitz, J., Wisanto, A., Devroey, P. 1993. High fertilization and implantation rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum. Reprod. 8:1061-1066.

Van Steirteghem, A., Nagy, Z., Liu, J., Joris, H., Verheyen, G., Smitz, J., Tournaye, H., Liebaers, I., Devroey, P. 1994. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Baillieres. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol. 8:85-93.

Verlinsky, Y., Handyside, A.H., Edwards, R., Kulliev, A., Liebaers, I., Coonen, E., Plachot, S., Strom, C., Braude, P., Van Streirtenheim, A., Monk, M., Harper, J., Kontogianni, E.H. & Wilton, L. (1994). Preimplantation Genetic diagnosis of genetic and chromosomal disorders. J. Ass. Repr. Genet., Vol. 11, pp 236243

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Weil-E; Cornet-D; Sibony-C; Mandelbaum-J; Salat-Baroux-J. Psychological aspects in anonymous and non-anonymous oocyte donation. Hum-Reprod. 1994 Jul; 9(7): 1344-7

Wolgemuth DJ, Rhee K, Wu S, Ravnik SE . Genetic control of mitosis, meiosis and cellular differentiation during mammalian spermatogenesis. Reproduction, Fertility, & Development (1995)7:669-683. Gametogenesis

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Πινακας 1
Ποιότητα σπέρματος Χρωματικές ανωμαλίες

φυσιολογικες παραμετροι

2.2%.

ολιγοσπερμια

5.1%,

αζωοσπερμια

14.6%

μη-αποφρακτικη αζωοσπερμια

20.3%

(απο Yoshida et al, 1995)

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